M2: Second Year Modules
The second year takes an organ system-based approach and applies the basic knowledge of the first year to the study of clinical disease, pathological processes and treatment. The six systems modules help reinforce the basic science content from M-1 and provide vertical integration of pathology, pharmacology, and clinical sciences. The students also continue the Practice of Medicine module and complete the research projects identified in the first-year Focused Individualized Research Experience:
Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems
The Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems module is designed to serve as an introduction to the disease processes which affect the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. This module builds upon an understanding of the structure and function of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, and enables students to integrate basic science and clinical concepts related to these systems, with emphasis on the pathology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Appropriate examples of medical imaging and diagnostic techniques are introduced, including pulmonary function testing and basic ECG recording and interpretation.
- Demonstrate an understanding of anatomy, pathology, pathophysiology, presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and imaging, management principles and preventive strategies for:
- dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
- acute coronary syndrome
- valvular disease
- heart failure
- pleural, pericardial, myocardial and endocardial disease
- venous and lymphatic disease
- shock and hemodynamic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease
- obstructive and restrictive lung disease
- inflammatory, infectious, environmental and immunologic respiratory disease
- neoplastic respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
- Demonstrate an understanding of principles of therapeutics including mechanism of action, relevant pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indications and adverse effects for treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory system disorders.
- Demonstrate the ability to analyze the key components of an electrocardiogram and compare and contrast different presentations, pathophysiology and management approaches of electrophysiologic disease.
- Discuss the role of age, gender, ethnic and behavioral factors in cardiovascular and respiratory disease.
- Demonstrate an understanding of pathophysiology and management approaches for specific genetic conditions.
- Discuss pathology, diagnostic approaches and management principles of congenital heart disease.
Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
The Endocrine and Reproductive Systems block in the 2nd year at UCF provides an overview of Endocrine, Reproductive and Genitourinary disorders, focusing on major disease classification and terminology, signs and symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and differential diagnosis as supported by evidence-based medicine. Basic science and clinical concepts from the first year are applied to the understanding and treatment of disease of these systems. This module focuses on molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, as well as treatment and management of patients with common metabolic and endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, growth and pubertal development, endocrine and hormonal causes of hypertension, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal and neuroendocrine disorders. In addition, this module covers the pathophysiology and pathology of nutritional inadequacies or excesses, their clinical manifestations, prevention and treatment.
- Classify disorders of endocrine metabolism characterized by the overproduction or underproduction of hormones. Explain pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, and the pharmacologic management.
- Classify mass lesions and neoplasms of the endocrine system. Discuss the pathogenesis and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management.
- Explain the normal and abnormal development and physiology of the female reproductive systems from embryologic development through menopause including pubertal development. Address disorders of reproductive endocrinology and infertility.
- Review the physiology of sexual function and describe disorders of male and female sexual dysfunction, including presentation and management. Review contraceptive mechanisms and discuss patient counseling regarding contraceptive options. Discuss prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
- Describe the physiology of normal pregnancy, including maternal, fetal and placental physiology. Explain the pathology and management of disorders including abnormal placental pathology, complications of early and late pregnancy, and risk factors and screening of abnormal fetal development.
- Classify hyperplastic, precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the male and female reproductive system. Discuss pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk and prognostic factors, screening, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.
- Classify masses and inflammatory conditions of the breast and describe the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and screening for breast neoplasia. Propose diagnostic approaches, initial treatment options and discuss prognostic factors.
Gastrointestinal and Renal Systems
The Gastrointestinal and Renal Systems module focuses on diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including the hepatobiliary system, and nephrology, including diseases of the urinary tract. These areas focus on the pathology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, and drugs used for the treatment of GI and urinary tract diseases. The basic science and clinical concepts of Year 1 are expanded to include the pathology and pathophysiology, as well as the pharmacological treatments of diseases of these systems. This module emphasizes the molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, treatment and management of patients with GI, hepatic, and genitourinary disorders.
- Match each major component of the GI tract (oral cavity/salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon/rectum/anus, liver, biliary tract/gallbladder, pancreas) to the most common types of GI pathophysiology (digestion, absorption, motility).
- For each major component of the GI tract, identify the most common categories of disease processes (inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, vascular, metabolic/endocrine, immune-mediated, congenital, trauma).
- Describe the clinical presentations and histopathology for the common diseases of each major component of the GI tract.
- Distinguish between normal and abnormal values for common clinical laboratory tests of GI tract function.
- Relate common diseases of the GI tract to abnormalities found on abdominal imaging.
- For common GI tract diseases at each level of the GI tract, use the relevant pathophysiology and apply pharmacologic principles to predict potential treatment approaches.
- From clinical laboratory test principles and the pathophysiology of common GI tract diseases, construct profiles of test results for typical patients with the most common GI tract diseases.
- From imaging test principles and the pathophysiology of common GI tract diseases, construct profiles of imaging results for typical patients with the most common GI tract diseases.
- Apply principles of pathophysiology, clinical laboratory testing, and imaging to differentiate among the most common diseases at each level of the GI tract.
- Given common symptoms and signs of GI tract diseases, propose a list of potential diagnoses and their relative likelihood.
- Given common symptoms and signs of GI tract diseases, design plans of evaluation to distinguish among the most common diseases at each level of the GI tract.
- Discuss the classes of drugs, their mechanisms of action, and their side effects as used in the treatment of common GI tract diseases.
- Apply the principles of VINDICATE to classify disease of the renal system (Vascular, Infectious, Neoplastic, Drug, Inflammatory, Congenital, Allergic/autoimmune, Trauma/physical, Endocrine/metabolic).
- Describe the structure and function of the renal system.
- Explain physiologic control of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Translate these concepts into pathophysiology of associated disease states.
- Analyze clinical signs and symptoms of major renal diseases and use these to construct a differential diagnosis using laboratory testing, imaging, endoscopy and results of pathological examination.
- Relate clinical signs and symptoms of renal disease to underlying pathophysiology and pathology of renal tissue injury.
- Using principles of pathophysiology, identify appropriate drug treatments for major forms of renal disease.
- Classify specific renal diseases according to the three major components: glomerular, vascular and tubulointerstitial.
- Describe the differences between nephritic and nephrotic syndrome and relate these to differing types of renal injury.
- Identify common infectious etiologies for upper and lower urinary/renal infections. Describe symptomatology, diagnostic work-up and therapeutic options.
- Classify cystic and mass lesions of the kidney and urinary tracts; identify risk factors, and describe approaches for evaluating and treating these processes.
- Describe the cases, effects and management of obstructive urinary tract disease.
- Recommend appropriate screening and surveillance for the most common diseases of the kidney and urinary tract.
Skin and Musculoskeletal Systems
The Skin and Musculoskeletal Systems module is focused on the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the skin and the musculoskeletal systems. Students build on basic science and clinical concepts from year 1 to understand common presenting complaints, diagnostic techniques, and treatment methods for cutaneous and musculoskeletal disorders. This module emphasizes the molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, treatment and management of patients with diseases of the skin and musculoskeletal system. Treatment methods include pharmacological, physical, and surgical modalities.
- Demonstrate a rational approach to classify skin lesions, vasculitis, rheumatic diseases, and disorders affecting bone and joints based on clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathologic findings.
- Demonstrate an understanding of anatomy, etiology, pathology, pathophysiology, presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management principles for:
- Inherited, acute/chronic and inflammatory/autoimmune/infectious disorders, drug eruptions, blistering diseases, pigmentary alterations and papulosquamous lesions involving skin.
- Degenerative, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders involving joints and connective tissue.
- Inherited, traumatic, degenerative, acute/chronic and inflammatory/infectious disorders involving bones, skeletal muscles and related structures/tissues.
- Assess the role of age, nutrition, gender, ethnic and behavioral factors in diseases involving skin, connective tissue, bones, and muscles.
- Demonstrate an understanding of principles of therapeutics including mechanism of action, relevant pharmacokinectics, therapeutic indications and adverse effects for treatment of disorders of skin, bone, skeletal muscle, including rheumatic diseases.
- Demonstrate an understanding of role of genetics in pathogenesis of developmental abnormalities diseases involving the skin and musculoskeletal system.
- Discuss histogenesis, pathology, diagnostic approaches and management principles of neoplasms and tumor like conditions involving skin, soft tissue, muscle, bone and joints and relate to clinical presentation and biologic behavior.
Brain and Behavior
The Neuroscience module emphasizes the molecular basis and pathophysiological processes of common neurological disorders. The module focuses on basic and common neurologic issues, integrated with an understanding of their effects on other physiologic systems. The module includes an overview of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, with correlation to disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. This module offers an in-depth understanding of the molecular basis of neurologic disorders, pathology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Inclusive in the study of nervous system disorders is the study of developmental and psychiatric disorders along with their pathology, diagnosis and treatment.
- Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of nervous system function in health and disease.
- Classify the major categories of nervous system diseases.
- Analyze clinical signs and symptoms of nervous system diseases and organize/construct a differential diagnosis.
- Localize potential sites of neurological lesions based on signs and symptoms of neurological dysfunction.
- Discuss the underlying causes of major classes of nervous system disease and explain major clinical findings based on pathophysiologic principles.
- Analyze basic diagnostic tests and procedures for evaluating nervous system diseases to refine diagnoses and discuss basic disease management.
- Explain mechanisms of action of major classes of therapeutic agents used in treatment of nervous system diseases.
- Identify therapeutic targets for drugs used in treatment of nervous system diseases based on mechanism of action.
- Develop a rational therapeutic approach to nervous system disease based on principles of pathoanatomy, pathophysiology, and pharmacology.
- Describe the diagnostic classification, clinical features, differential diagnoses and typical course and prognosis of the major psychiatric disorders, as well as their common comorbid conditions and mental status findings.
- Understand key pharmacology concepts as applicable to management of psychiatric disorders.
- Develop a rational psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic (biopsychosocial) approach to treatment of psychiatric and cognitive disorders, and discuss the adverse effects, drug interactions and therapeutic monitoring required.
- Discuss the classes of drugs of abuse, their mechanisms of action, addiction potential, symptoms of intoxication and withdrawal, and pharmacologic management of withdrawal and dependence.
- Illustrate pain pathways, identify primary neurotransmitters of pain, and drug classes to manage pain.
- Describe the epidemiology, risk factors, genetics and pathophysiology, when known, for the major psychiatric disorders.
Practice of Medicine 2
The goal of the Practice of Medicine continuum is to help students develop the essential knowledge and skills to optimally participate and learn in clerkship-level clinical care environments.
Practice of Medicine-2 is a year long module, integrated with the organ systems (S) modules, which teaches advanced clinic skills and stresses the development of clinical reasoning. The module builds upon physical examination and medical interviewing skills learned in the first year module. Key areas of learning include advanced oral presentation and medical documentation skills, development of basic clinical decision-making and application of selected diagnostic tests. Integration with the Systems modules highlights the link between foundational knowledge and clinical practice while promoting intellectual curiosity, self-directed learning and clinical reasoning skills.
The module instructional activities incorporate a variety of modalities to promote experiential learning and skill acquisition. These include interactive presentations, small group sessions, student-directed independent learning tasks and Clinical Skills and Simulator Center (CSSC) exercises. The CSSC provides the setting for student encounters with Standardized Patients (SPs), high-fidelity simulators and task trainers as well as web-based activities for the learning, practice and assessment of clinical skills.
The Community of Practice component, a longitudinal clinical experience, is integrated within the module as students continue to work with preceptors throughout the Central Florida medical community, expanding their experiences in a clinical setting. Longitudinal Curricular Themes (LCT) are interwoven throughout the course with the aim to help students appreciate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of caring for patients.
- Demonstrate advanced physical diagnosis skills and their application in diagnosing common clinical problems in adult patients.
- Accurately report, in written and oral format, a patient’s history and physical examination findings in “SOAP” format as well as traditional “history and physical” format.
- Demonstrate the ability to use data from the clinical encounter (history, physical and ancillary studies) to generate a problem list and initial hypothesis and demonstrate clinical reasoning.
- Demonstrate the ability to select, justify and interpret selected clinical tests and basic radiologic studies.
- Demonstrate the ability to understand and safely perform a variety of basic clinical procedures.
- Demonstrate the ability to apply the principles of evidence-based medicine and harness informatics technology resources to formulate patient-based questions, appraise the medical literature and inform clinical decision making.
- Understand socioeconomic, legal, regulatory, safety, humanistic, cultural and ethical issues related to the care of individual patients and patient populations.
- Demonstrate the ability to assess and counsel patients regarding lifestyle, prevention, and health and wellness strategies.
- Demonstrate honesty and integrity in all interactions with patients, families, colleagues, and others with whom physicians must interact in their professional lives.
- Demonstrate the capacity to recognize limitations in one’s knowledge and clinical skills, and a commitment to use self-evaluation, constructive feedback and reflective practice to form the basis of self-directed learning and continuous improvement.
Focused Individual Research Experience 2 (F.I.R.E.)
During year 2 of the “Keep the Dream Alive” module, students complete their projects initiated during year 1 and present them to faculty and peers during a mini-conference highlighting their work. It is expected that projects result in a scholarly presentation or publication. The conference is scheduled so that both first-year and second-year students can attend, providing opportunity for second-year students to serve as role models for their classmates. Projects and research may extend into the third and fourth years, and for students continuing their research, additional opportunities for presentation are available.
- Demonstrate the ability to collect data necessary to answer a question, verify a hypothesis, solve a problem, or assess the efficacy of a project.
- Analyze and synthesize collected data or available evidence using statistical methods as appropriate.
- Discuss results and their significance in relation to the expected results of a project and the body of knowledge to which they are related.
- produce a written project report that is a clear and logical description and analysis of its nature, rationale and conclusions.
- Demonstrate strong project management skills through appropriate assessment and monitoring of project progress.
- Demonstrate the ability to discuss and defend ideas and findings in a scholarly manner.