The second year takes an organ system-based approach and applies the basic knowledge of the first year to the study of clinical disease, pathological processes and treatment. The six systems modules help reinforce the basic science content from M-1 and provide vertical integration of pathology, pharmacology, and clinical sciences. The students also continue the Practice of Medicine module and complete the research projects identified in the first-year Focused Inquiry and Research Experience.


Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems

The Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems module is designed to serve as an introduction to the disease processes which affect the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. This module builds upon an understanding of the structure and function of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, and enables students to integrate basic science and clinical concepts related to these systems, with emphasis on the pathology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Appropriate examples of medical imaging and diagnostic techniques are introduced, including pulmonary function testing and basic ECG recording and interpretation.

Learning objectives:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of anatomy, pathology, pathophysiology, presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and imaging, management principles and preventive strategies for:
    • dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
    • acute coronary syndrome
    • hypertension
    • syncope
    • valvular disease
    • heart failure
    • pleural, pericardial, myocardial and endocardial disease
    • venous and lymphatic disease
    • shock and hemodynamic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease
    • obstructive and restrictive lung disease
    • inflammatory, infectious, environmental and immunologic respiratory disease
    • neoplastic respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of principles of therapeutics including mechanism of action, relevant pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indications and adverse effects for treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory system disorders.
  • Demonstrate the ability to analyze the key components of an electrocardiogram and compare and contrast different presentations, pathophysiology and management approaches of electrophysiologic disease.
  • Discuss the role of age, gender, ethnic and behavioral factors in cardiovascular and respiratory disease.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of pathophysiology and management approaches for specific genetic conditions.
  • Discuss pathology, diagnostic approaches and management principles of congenital heart disease.
  • Demonstrate professional behaviors towards students, faculty and other members of the medical education team including punctuality, reliability, preparation and participation in all required learning encounters.


Endocrine and Reproductive Systems

The Endocrine and Reproductive Systems module block in the 2nd year at UCF provides an overview building upon knowledge learned of structure and function of these systems: Endocrine, Reproductive and Genitourinary disorders, focusing on to describe major disease classification and terminology, signs and symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and differential diagnosis as supported by evidence-based medicine. Basic science and clinical concepts from the first year are applied to the understanding and treatment of disease of these systems. This module focuses on molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, as well as treatment and management of patients with common metabolic and endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, growth and pubertal development, obesity, endocrine and hormonal causes of hypertension, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal and neuroendocrine disorders. Male and female reproductive endocrinology, pathology and pharmacology are addressed and include attention to the psychosocial dynamics, which affect disease of these systems including coverage of healthcare disparities. In addition, this module covers the pathophysiology and pathology of nutritional inadequacies or excesses, their clinical manifestations, prevention and treatment.

Learning objectives:

  • Classify disorders of endocrine metabolism characterized by the overproduction or underproduction of hormones. Explain pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, and the pharmacologic management.
  • Classify mass lesions and neoplasms of the endocrine system. Discuss the pathogenesis and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management.
  • Explain the normal and abnormal development and physiology of the female reproductive systems from embryologic development through menopause including pubertal development.  Address disorders of reproductive endocrinology and infertility.
  • Review the physiology of sexual function and describe disorders of male and female sexual dysfunction, including presentation and management. Review contraceptive mechanisms and discuss patient counseling regarding contraceptive options. Discuss prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
  • Describe the physiology of normal pregnancy, including maternal, fetal and placental physiology. Explain the pathology and management of disorders including abnormal placental pathology, complications of early and late pregnancy, and risk factors and screening of abnormal fetal development.
  • Classify hyperplastic, precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the male and female reproductive system. Discuss pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk and prognostic factors, screening, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.
  • Classify masses and inflammatory conditions of the breast and describe the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and screening for breast neoplasia. Propose diagnostic approaches, initial treatment options and discuss prognostic factors.
  • Demonstrate professional behaviors towards students, faculty and other members of the medical education team including punctuality, reliability, preparation and participation in all required learning encounters.


Gastrointestinal and Renal Systems

The Gastrointestinal and Renal Systems module focuses on diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including the hepatobiliary system, and nephrology, including diseases of the urinary tract. These areas focus on the pathology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, and drugs used for the treatment of GI and urinary tract diseases. The basic science and clinical concepts of Year 1 are expanded to include the pathology and pathophysiology, as well as the pharmacological treatments of diseases of these systems. This module emphasizes the molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, treatment and management of patients with GI, hepatic, and genitourinary disorders.

Learning objectives:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of anatomy, pathology, pathophysiology, presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and imaging, and management principles (including screening and surveillance where appropriate) for disorders of peritoneal and retroperitoneal structures including:
    •  Glomerular diseases (including nephritic and nephrotic syndromes)
    • Tubulointerstitial renal diseases
    • Vascular renal diseases
    • Acute kidney injury (including causes of pre-renal, intra-renal, and post-renal) and Chronic kidney disease
    • Cystic renal diseases
    • Diseases of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract from the oral cavity to the anus including: gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and diarrhea
    • Cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease and its causes
    • Disorders of the exocrine pancreas
    • Infectious diseases of the urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, and hepatobiliary system
  • Discuss histogenesis, pathology, diagnostic approaches and management principles of neoplasms and tumor like conditions involving the kidney and urinary tract, the gastrointestinal tract, the hepatobiliary system, and the exocrine pancreas.
  • Given clinical symptoms, relevant laboratory test and histopathology results, and abdominal imaging, demonstrate an ability to develop a differential diagnosis of disorders of the kidney and urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of therapeutics including mechanism of action, relevant pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indications and adverse effects for treatment of kidney and urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas disorders.
  • Explain the physiologic control of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Translate these concepts into pathophysiology of associated disease states.
  • Demonstrate professional behaviors towards students, faculty and other members of the medical education team including punctuality, reliability, preparation and participation in all required learning encounters.

 

Skin and Musculoskeletal Systems

The Skin and Musculoskeletal Systems module is focused on the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the skin and the musculoskeletal systems. Students build on basic science and clinical concepts from year 1 to understand common presenting complaints, diagnostic techniques, and treatment methods for cutaneous and musculoskeletal disorders. This module emphasizes the molecular and cellular pathology, clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings, treatment and management of patients with diseases of the skin and musculoskeletal system. Treatment methods include pharmacological, physical, and surgical modalities.

Learning objectives:


Brain and Behavior

The Neuroscience module emphasizes the molecular basis and pathophysiological processes of common neurological disorders. The module focuses on basic and common neurologic issues, integrated with an understanding of their effects on other physiologic systems. The module includes an overview of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, with correlation to disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. This module offers an in-depth understanding of the molecular basis of neurologic disorders, pathology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Inclusive in the study of nervous system disorders is the study of developmental and psychiatric disorders along with their pathology, diagnosis and treatment.

Learning objectives:

  • Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of nervous system function in health and disease.
  • Classify the major categories of nervous system diseases.
  • Analyze clinical signs and symptoms of nervous system diseases and organize/construct a differential diagnosis.
  • Localize potential sites of neurological lesions based on signs and symptoms of neurological dysfunction.
  • Discuss the underlying causes of major classes of nervous system disease and explain major clinical findings based on pathophysiologic principles.
  • Analyze basic diagnostic tests and procedures for evaluating nervous system diseases to refine diagnoses and discuss basic disease management.
  • Explain mechanisms of action of major classes of therapeutic agents used in treatment of nervous system diseases.
  • Identify therapeutic targets for drugs used in treatment of nervous system diseases based on mechanism of action.
  • Develop a rational therapeutic approach to nervous system disease based on principles of pathoanatomy, pathophysiology, and pharmacology.
  • Describe the diagnostic classification, clinical features, differential diagnoses and typical course and prognosis of the major psychiatric disorders, as well as their common comorbid conditions and mental status findings.
  • Understand key pharmacology concepts as applicable to management of psychiatric disorders.
  • Develop a rational psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic (biopsychosocial) approach to treatment of psychiatric and cognitive disorders, and discuss the adverse effects, drug interactions and therapeutic monitoring required.
  • Discuss the classes of drugs of abuse, their mechanisms of action, addiction potential, symptoms of intoxication and withdrawal, and pharmacologic management of withdrawal and dependence.
  • Illustrate pain pathways, identify primary neurotransmitters of pain, and drug classes to manage pain.
  • Describe the epidemiology, risk factors, genetics and pathophysiology, when known, for the major psychiatric disorders.
  • Demonstrate professional behaviors towards students, faculty and other members of the medical education team including punctuality, reliability, preparation and participation in all required learning encounters.


Practice of Medicine 2

The goal of the Practice of Medicine continuum is to help students develop the essential knowledge and skills to optimally participate and learn in clerkship-level clinical care environments.

Practice of Medicine-2 is a year long module, integrated with the organ systems (S) modules, which teaches advanced clinic skills and stresses the development of clinical reasoning. The module builds upon physical examination and medical interviewing skills learned in the first year module. Key areas of learning include advanced oral presentation and medical documentation skills, development of basic clinical decision-making and application of selected diagnostic tests. Integration with the Systems modules highlights the link between foundational knowledge and clinical practice while promoting intellectual curiosity, self-directed learning and clinical reasoning skills.

The module instructional activities incorporate a variety of modalities to promote experiential learning and skill acquisition. These include interactive presentations, small group sessions, student-directed independent learning tasks and Clinical Skills and Simulator Center (CSSC) exercises. The CSSC provides the setting for student encounters with Standardized Patients (SPs), high-fidelity simulators and task trainers as well as web-based activities for the learning, practice and assessment of clinical skills.

The Community of Practice component, a longitudinal clinical experience, is integrated within the module as students continue to work with preceptors throughout the Central Florida medical community, expanding their experiences in a clinical setting. Longitudinal Curricular Themes (LCT) are interwoven throughout the course with the aim to help students appreciate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of caring for patients.

Learning objectives:

  • Demonstrate advanced physical diagnosis skills and their application in diagnosing common clinical problems in adult patients.
  • Accurately report, in written and oral format, a patient’s history and physical examination findings in “SOAP” format as well as traditional “history and physical” format.
  • Demonstrate the ability to use data from the clinical encounter (history, physical and ancillary studies) to generate a problem list and initial hypothesis and demonstrate clinical reasoning.
  • Demonstrate the ability to select, justify and interpret selected clinical tests and basic radiologic studies.
  • Demonstrate the ability to understand and safely perform a variety of basic clinical procedures.
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply the principles of evidence-based medicine and harness informatics technology resources to formulate patient-based questions, appraise the medical literature and inform clinical decision making.
  • Understand socioeconomic, legal, regulatory, safety, humanistic, cultural and ethical issues related to the care of individual patients and patient populations.
  • Demonstrate the ability to assess and counsel patients regarding lifestyle, prevention, and health and wellness strategies.
  • Demonstrate honesty and integrity in all interactions with patients, families, colleagues, and others with whom physicians must interact in their professional lives.
  • Demonstrate the capacity to recognize limitations in one’s knowledge and clinical skills, and a commitment to use self-evaluation, constructive feedback and reflective practice to form the basis of self-directed learning and continuous improvement.


Focused Inquiry and Research Experience 2 (F.I.R.E.)

The central purpose of this module is to allow each student to experience the research process and develop skills of intellectual inquiry that are transferable to the practice of medicine. A research project may be in any area of interest related to medicine where a Research Mentor can be identified. The curriculum will include training and tools to foster a habit of inquiry that will guide the pursuit of the selected area of interest. Research mentors will oversee the creation (Year 1) and completion (Year 2) of a rigorous, independent, and scholarly research project. Students will complete their projects initiated during Year 1, and present them to faculty and peers during the FIRE Research Conference. The conference is scheduled so that both first-year and second- year students participate, providing opportunity for second year students to serve as role models for their classmates.  This module provides students with a strong foundation for life-long exploration and evaluation of research so that they can advance knowledge/technology/ methods relevant to biomedicine, employ evidence-based medicine practices effectively, and ultimately improve clinical outcomes.

Learning objectives:

At the end of I-2, students will be able to:

  • Successfully acquire appropriate regulatory approvals to conduct research with human data (Institutional Review Board, IRB), animals (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, IACUC), and/or hazardous materials (Environmental Health and Safety, EH&S).
  • Demonstrate an ability to collect data to answer a question, test a hypothesis, solve a problem, assess the efficacy of a project, and/or provide a scholarly review of the scientific literature on the chosen research topic. 
  • Analyze and synthesize collected data/evidence using appropriate statistical and scientific methods.
    Demonstrate strong project management skills through periodic assessment and monitoring of project progress.
  • Demonstrate effective communication skills through professional interactions with research mentors and associates, including faculty, staff, and other students involved with the research project.
  • Perform critical peer review of research project presentations in a professional and timely manner.
  • Produce and present a scholarly research poster in a clear, concise, and logical manner.
  • Demonstrate the ability to effectively present, discuss, and scientifically defend research findings in a scholarly and professional manner at scientific conferences and peer-reviewed scientific journals external to UCF.