My research activities are focused on the fundamental mechanisms of the development of atherosclerosis and heart failure. Specifically, I am interested in studying the role of oxidative stress in the development of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors including Type 2 diabetes. In addition, I am interested in both the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases using nutritional, pharmacological, and life style modulations.

Several years ago I proposed the oxidative theory of atherosclerosis, which has gained considerable acceptance, and as a result a substantial population consumes antioxidant vitamins. However, a number of anti-atherogenic behavior traits are themselves pro-oxidant in nature. For example, exercise, a well-known deterrent of cardiovascular disease, is known to induce oxidative changes and deplete tissue antioxidants. Similarly, the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are more oxidation labile, decreases the progression of atherosclerosis. Based on our recent studies we postulated that a threshold oxidative stress might activate arterial wall antioxidant enzymes, and thus could become anti-atherogenic.

Human arteriosclerotic disease is different from that of animals. We are currently studying the mechanisms involved in the generation of advanced lesions and how calcification and inflammation might affect plaque vulnerability. Some of the ongoing studies in the laboratory include, studies on novel mechanistic insights on the cardio-protective role of aspirin, the use of sesame oil to control plaque progression, role of macrophage adherence in plaque development, progression of oxidative stress and aortic calcification, mechanisms involved in heart failure, and the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes.

Recent Publications (From over 235)

1)     Raghavamenon A, Garelnabi M, Babu S, Aldrich A, Litvinov D, Parthasarathy S. Alpha-tocopherol is ineffective in preventing the decomposition of preformed lipid peroxides and may promote the accumulation of toxic aldehydes: a potential explanation for the failure of antioxidants to affect human atherosclerosis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Jun;11(6):1237-48. PubMed PMID: 19186999; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2842134.

2)     Sun Q, Yue P, Deiuliis JA, Lumeng CN, Kampfrath T, Mikolaj MB, Cai Y, Ostrowski MC, Lu B, Parthasarathy S, Brook RD, Moffatt-Bruce SD, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S. Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Circulation. 2009 Feb 3;119(4):538-46. Epub 2009 Jan 19.

3)     Ying Z, Kherada N, Farrar B, Kampfrath T, Chung Y, Simonetti O, Deiuliis J, Desikan R, Khan B, Villamena F, Sun Q, Parthasarathy S, Rajagopalan S. Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis. Life Sci. 2010 Jan 16;86(3-4):95-102. Epub 2009 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 19944706.

4)     Litvinov D, Selvarajan K, Garelnabi M, Brophy L, Parthasarathy S. Anti-atherosclerotic actions of azelaic acid, an end product of linoleic acid peroxidation, in mice. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):449-54. Epub 2009 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 19880116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2846213

5)     Garelnabi M, Veledar E, Abramson J, White-Welkley J, Santanam N, Weintraub W, Parthasarathy S. Physical inactivity and cardiovascular risk: baseline observations from men and premenopausal women. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010 Mar;24(2):100-5. PubMed PMID: 20333763.

6)     Kwiatkowski P, Sai-Sudhakar C, Philips A, Parthasarathy S, Sun B. Development of a novel large animal model of ischemic heart failure using autologous platelet aggregates. Int J Artif Organs. 2010 Feb;33(2):63-71. PubMed PMID: 20306432.

7)     Parthasarathy S. Lipolysis needed for chylomicron uptake? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Jan;30(1):5-6. PubMed PMID: 20018939.

8)     Ying Z, Kampfrath T, Sun Q, Parthasarathy S, Rajagopalan S. Evidence that α-lipoic acid inhibits NF-κB activation independent of its antioxidant function. Ying Z, Kampfrath T, Sun Q, Parthasarathy S, Rajagopalan S. Inflamm Res. 2010 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20927568

9)     Lu T, Parthasarathy S, Hao H, Luo M, Ahmed S, Zhu J, Luo S, Kuppusamy P, Sen CK, Verfaillie CM, Tian J, Liu Z. Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Inhibition of Oct-4 Expression and Endothelial Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stem Cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Oct 12.

10)    Maiseyeu A, Mihai G, Roy S, Kherada N, Simonetti OP, Sen CK, Sun Q, Parthasarathy S, Rajagopalan S. Detection of macrophages via paramagnetic vesicles incorporating oxidatively tailored cholesterol ester: an approach for atherosclerosis imaging. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2010 Nov;5(9):1341-56.PMID: 21128718

11)    Kampfrath T, Maiseyeu A, Ying Z, Shah Z, Deiuliis JA, Xu X, Kherada N, Brook RD, Reddy KM, Padture NP, Parthasarathy S, Chen LC, Moffatt-Bruce S, Sun Q, Morawietz H, Rajagopalan S Chronic Fine Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Systemic Vascular Dysfunction via NADPH Oxidase and TLR4 Pathways Circ Res. 2011 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21273555 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher].

12)    Gaillard T, Parthasarathy S, Osei K. HDL dysfunctionality (Paraoxonase) is worse in nondiabetic, postmenopausal African American than in white women. Diabetes Care. 2011 Feb;34(2):e19. PMID: 21270177

13)    Penumetcha M, Merchant N, Parthasarathy S. Modulation of Leptin Levels by Oxidized Linoleic Acid: A Connection to Atherosclerosis? J Med Food. 2010 Dec 27. PMID: 21186986

14)    Ying Z, Kherada N, Kampfrath T, Mihai G, Simonetti O, Desikan R, Selvendiran K, Sun Q, Ziouzenkova O, Parthasarathy S, Rajagopalan S. A modified sesamol derivative inhibits progression of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Mar;31(3):536-42. Epub 2010 Dec 23. PMID: 21183734

15)    Chandrakala AN, Sukul D, Selvarajan K, Sai-Sudhakar C, Sun B, Parthasarathy S. Induction of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein1 Gene Expressions by Oxidized Lowdensity Lipoprotein-Relevance to Ischemic Heart Failure.  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21900689 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

16)    Garelnabi M, Veledar E, White-Welkley J, Santanam N, Abramson J, Weintraub W, Parthasarathy S. Vitamin E differentially affects short term exercise induced changes in oxidative stress, lipids, and inflammatory markers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21782401 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

17)    Xu X, Ying Z, Cai M, Xu Z, Li Y, Jiang SY, Tzan K, Wang A, Parthasarathy S, He G, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q. Exercise ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic and vascular dysfunction, and increases adipocyte progenitor cell population in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 May;300(5):R1115-25. Epub 2011 Mar 2. PMID: 21368268 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

18)    Jiang X, Yang Z, Chandrakala AN, Pressley D, Parthasarathy S. Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins-Do We Know Enough About Them? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2011 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21845368 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

19)    Selvarajan K, Moldovan L, Chandrakala AN, Litvinov D, Parthasarathy S. Peritoneal macrophages are distinct from monocytes and adherent macrophages. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:21982410 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]