Dr. Kevin D. Belfield

About Dr. Kevin D. Belfield

Current interests in our research group traverse the disciplines of polymer, organic and materials chemistry with particular focus on the design and synthesis of well-defined macromolecules with specific functionality.

Two-photon based microscopic techniques and reagents are being pursued for nondestructive evaluation and imaging of polymeric materials, e.g., to understand polymer degradation, stabilization, and interface behavior, along with site-specific biological imaging, and photodynamic therapy. In particular we have developed a class of highly efficient reactive two-photon absorbing fluorescent dyes for biological labeling and two-photon photodynamic cancer therapy.

The macromolecules we are investigating are important for their properties and potential applications in a number of emerging technologies for optical data storage and signal processing, optical limiting and sensor protection, optical displays, nondestructive imaging, biocompatible coatings for prostheses, and three dimensional micro- and nanofabrication.

The Belfield laboratories design, synthesize and characterize Electroactive, photoresponsive and magnetoactive organic and polymeric materials. We employ techniques of contemporary organic and polymer synthesis and develop efficient polymer grafting methodology. In addition we are developing stable, highly functionalized polymer nanocomposites through self-assembly techniques.

Recent Publications

  1. Belfield, K. D.; Abdel-Sadek, G. G.; Ting, R. Y.; Huang, J. "Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorinated Ter-polymers" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 494-495.
  2. Belfield, K. D.; Abdel-Sadek, G. G.; Huang, J.; Ting, R. Y. "Radical Telomerization of Vinylidene Fluoride in the Presence of Dibromodifluoromethane as Telogen" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 644.
  3. Belfield, K. D.; Abdel-Sadek, G. G. "Homo- and Co-fluorinated Acrylic Ester Polymers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Coating onto Silicon Surfaces" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 588.
  4. Belfield, K. D.; Morales, A. R.; Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Synthesis and Characterization of a Two-Photon Absorbing and Luminescent Aminofluorenyl Polymer" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 104-105.
  5. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J. "Modulation of Optical Properties in New Photosensitive Polymers 3-D Optical Data Storage Media" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 161-162.
  6. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J.; Andrasik, S J. "Three-Dimensional Two-Photon Fluorescence Lithographic Imaging in a New Photoresponsive Polymer" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 405-406.
  7. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J. "Deep Curing via Near-IR Two-Photon Induced Thiol-Ene Polymerization" Polymer Preprints 2002, 43(1), 83-84.
  8. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J.; Andrasik, S. Yavuz, O. Van Stryland, E. W.; Hagan, D. J.; Hales, J. M. "Three-Dimensional Two-Photon Imaging in Polymeric Materials" Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2002, 4459B, 281-289.
  9. Belfield, K. D.; Morales, A. R.; Andrasik, S. J.; Schafer, K. J.; Yavuz, O.; Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Novel Two-Photon Absorbing Polymers" In Functional Condensation Polymers; Carraher, C. E.; Swift, G. G., Eds.; Kluwer: London, 2002, Ch. 11.
  10. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Prshonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J.; Mourad, W. "Spectral Properties of Several Fluorene Derivatives with Potential as Two-Photon Fluorescent Dyes" Journal of Luminescence 2002, 97, 141-146.
  11. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. "Photophysical Characterization of 2,9-Bis(7-benzothiazole-9,9'-didecylfluoren-2-yl)perylene Diimide: a New Standard for Steady State Fluorescence Anisotropy" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2002, 151(1-3), 7-11.
  12. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. "Steady-State Spectroscopic and Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements of New Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorene Derivatives" Journal of Fluorescence 2002, 12, 445-450.
  13. Belfield, K. D.; Liu, Y.; Negres, R. A.; Fan M.; Pan, G.; Hagan, D. J.; Hernandez, F. E. "Two-Photon Photochromism of an Organic Material for Holographic Recording" Chemistry of Materials 2002,14, 3663-3667.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm0107981
  14. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J. "A New Photosensitive Polymeric Material for Optical Data Storage using Multichannel Two-Photon Fluorescence Readout" Chemistry of Materials 2002,14, 3656-3662.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm010799t
  15. Xia, F.; Cheng, Z.; Xu, H.; Li, H.; Zhang, Q.; Kavarnos, G. J.; Ting, R. Y.; Abdel-Sadek, G.; Belfield, K. D. "High Electromechanical Responses in a Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) Terpolymer"  Advanced Materials 2002, 14, 1574-1577.
  16. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J.; Andrasik, S. J. "Photosensitive polymeric media for two-photon based optical data storage" Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2003, 4797, 275-283.elfield, K. D.; Morales, A.; Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Two-photon absorption in a new symmetrical series of diphenylaminofluorene-based structures" Polymer Preprints 2003, 44(1), 1061-1062.
  17. Belfield, K. D.; Wang, Y. "Synthesis of functionalized tri-block copolymers and their applications in dispersing magnetic nanoparticles" Polymer Preprints 2003, 44(1), 1124-1125.
  18. Galvan-Gonzalez, A.; Belfield, K. D.; Stegeman, G. I.; Canva, M.; Marder, S. R.; Staub, K.; Levina, G.; Tweig, R. J. "Photodegradation of Selected Ĉ-Conjugated Electro-Optic Chromophores" Journal of Applied Physics 2003, 94 (1), 756-763.
  19. Jonsson, S.; Yang, D.; Viswanathan, K.; Shier, E.; Lindgren, K.; Belfield, K. D.; Hoyle, C. E. "Mechanistic Aspects of Maleimide-Donor Photocopolymerizations" In Photoinitiated Polymerization; ACS Symposium Series 847; Belfield; K. D., Crivello; J. R., Eds.; American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003, Ch. 7.
  20. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J. "Two-Photon Photoinitiated Polymerization" In Photoinitiated Polymerization; ACS Symposium Series 847; Belfield; K. D., Crivello; J. R., Eds.; American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003, Ch. 39.
  21. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Liu, Y.; Przhonska, O. V. "Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of 5,7-Dimethoxycoumarin under One- and Two-Photon Excitation" Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2003, 16, 69-78.
  22. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V; Morales, A. R.; Yavuz, O.; Przhonska, O. V. "A New Blue Light-Emitting Oligofluorene Glass: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photophysical Properties" Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 2003, 16, 194-201.
  23. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J.; Yao, S.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. "Reactive two-photon fluorescent probes for biological imaging" Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2004, 5211, 91-95.
  24. Schafer, K. J.; Belfield, K. D.; Yao, S.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. "Fluorescent dyes for multiphoton bio-imaging applications" Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2004, 5329, 201-206.
  25. Belfield, K. D.; Morales, A. R.; Yao, S.; Brice, A.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. "New highly efficient two-photon fluorescent dyes" Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2004, 5351.
  26. Belfield, K. D.; Schafer, K. J.; Andrasik, S. J. "Modulation of Optical Properties in New Photosensitive Polymers: 3-D Optical Data Storage Media" In Chromogenic Phenomena in Polymers: Tunable Optical Properties; ACS Symposium Series 888; Jenekhe, S. A.; Kiserow, D. J., Eds.; American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2004, Ch.9.
  27. Belfield, K. D.; Hernandez, F. E.; Bondar, M. V.; Van Stryland, E. W. "Two-photons and beyond: 2, 3 and 4 photon absorption in conjugated fluorenes" Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering 2004, 91, 346-347.
  28. Belfield, K. D.; Yao, S.; Hales, J. M.; Bondar, M. V.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. "Novel two-photon absorbing branched architectures" Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering 2004, 91, 340-341.
  29. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. "One- and two-photon photostability of 9,9-didecyl-2,7-bis-(N,N-diphenylamino)fluorene" Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2004, 3, 138-141.
  30. Schafer, K. J.; Hales, J. M; Balu, M.; Belfield, K. D.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Hagan, D. J. "Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Sections of Common Photoinitiators" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2004, 162, 497-502.
  31. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. "Photochemical properties of (7-benzothiazol-2-yl-9,9-didecylfluoren-2-yl)diphenylamine under one- and two-photon excitation" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2004, 162, 569-574.
  32. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. "Photostability of a series of two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2004, 162, 489-496.
  33. Hernandez, F. E.; Belfield, K. D.; Cohanoschi, I.; Balu, M.; Schafer, K. J. "Three and four-photon absorption of a multiphoton absorbing fluorescent probe" Applied Optics 2004, 43 (28), 5394-5398.
  34. Hernandez, F. E.; Belfield, K. D.; Cohanoschi, I. "Three-photon absorption enhancement in a symmetrical charge transfer fluorene derivative" Chemical Physics Letters 2004, 391, 22-26.
  35. Belfield, K. D.; Zhang, L. "Synthesis of functionalized block copolymers via ring-opening metathesis polymerization: magnetic ferrofluids" Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering 2004, 91, 783-784.
  36. Belfield, K. D.; Morales, A. R.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes" Chemistry of Materials 2004, 16, 2267-2273.
  37. Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Schafer, K. J.; Morales, A. R.; Belfield, K. D.; Pacher, P.; Kwon, O.; Zojer, E.; Bredas, J.-L. "Resonant Enhancement of Two-Photon Absorption in Substituted Fluorene Molecules" Journal of Chemical Physics 2004, 121 (7), 3152-3160.
  38. Belfield, K. D.; Morales, A. R.; Kang, B.-S.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives" Chemistry of Materials 2004, 16, 4634-4641.
  39. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Hernandez, F. E.; Morales, A. R.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. “Nonlinear transmission and excited-state absorption in fluorene derivatives” Applied Optics 2004, 43, 6339-6343.
  40. Belfield, K. D.; Yao, S.; Morales, A. R.; Hales, J. M.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W. Chapela, V. M.; Percino, J. "Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Rigid Two-Photon Absorbing Polymers" Polymers for Advanced Technologies 2005, 16, 150-155.
  41. Cohanoschi, I.; Belfield, K. D.; Hernandez, F. E. “Three-photon absorption enhancement in symmetrical charge transfer pull-pull fluorene derivatives” Chemical Physics Letters 2005, 406, 462-466.
  42. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Hales, J. M.; Morales, A. R.; Przhonska, O. V.; Schafer, K. J. “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” Journal of Fluorescence 2005, 15(1), 3-11.
  43. Yao, S.; Belfield, K. D. “Synthesis of Two-Photon Absorbing Unsymmetrical Branched Chromophores through Direct Tris(bromomethylation) of Fluorene” Journal of Organic Chemistry 2005 70, 5126-5132.
  44. Schafer, K. J.; Belfield, K. D.; Yao. S.; Frederiksen, P. K.; Hales. J. M.; Kolattukudy, P. E. “Fluorene-based fluorescent probes with high two-photon action cross-sections for biological multiphoton imaging applications” Journal of Biomedical Optics 2005, 10 (5), 051402-1-051402-8.
  45. Belfield, K.D.; Bondar, M. V.; Przhonska, O. V. “Singlet oxygen quantum yield determination for a fluorene-based two-photon photosensitizer” Journal of Fluorescence 2006, 16, 111-117.
  46. Belfield, K. D. ; Corredor, C. C.; Morales, A. R. ; Dessources, M. A. ; Hernandez, F. E. “Synthesis and Characterization of New Fluorene-based Singlet Oxygen Sensitizers” Journal of Fluorescence 2006, 16, 105-110.
  47. Belfield, K. D.; Bondar, M. V.; Hernandez, F. E.; Przhonska, O. V; Yao, S. “Two-photon absorption of a supramolecular psuedoisocyanine J-aggregate assembly” Chemical Physics 2006, 320, 118-124.